Tuesday, December 26, 2017

How to measure conductivity of water

How to measure conductivity of water (conductometry)

Insight to conductivity measurement (conductivity to resistivity) 

This How to measure conductivity of water PDF offers insight to conductivity measurement (conductivity to resistivity) using a conductometry meter. Below are excerpts from whitepaper...
2 plate conductivity probe
Figure No. 1 Traditional two-plate conductivity probe.
Conductivity measurement meter operation and use. The electrical conductivity of water based solutions (and its opposite, conductivity to resistivity) indicate its electrical current carrying ability. High conductivity occurs when many charged atoms and ions are in the water. This typically means the presence of dissolved metals, salts, acidic or alkali chemicals. Conductivity measurement probes are used to measure the total level of charged particles present. This article explains how conductivity measurement probes work and their application in boiler water treatment and management.

The more charged particles that are present, the easier it is for the electricity to flow. The amount of electricity that flows is a direct reflection of the amount of chemicals present in the water. Conductivity measurement, measures the Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) present and can be used as an indication of contamination. Some charged particles contribute more than others. Organic compounds, like fuels, oils, alcohols, sugars, do not behave in the same way and conductivity cannot be used as a measure of contamination.

Conductivity measurement:

To pass electric current through water a conductivity meter has two probes a small distance apart. A known amount of electricity is put down one probe and the amount that gets through to the other probe is measured. The greater the electric current, the greater the number of charged particles present in the water. Figure No. 1 shows how the earliest conductivity probes were designed. To make the probes more sensitive when fewer charged particles were present the distance between the plates was reduced.

The size of the plates/probes and their distance apart establishes a cell constant for the probe. The meter’s sensitivity can be selected by choosing the probe’s cell constant. Low conduction solutions require big probe surface areas close together while highly conducting solutions use smaller surfaces further apart. Click to learn more about how to measure conductivity of water.

Conductometry probes:

The sensor end of the probe is mounted in the water stream and the read-out is displayed locally or in a control room. Conductivity meters are regularly installed in boiler water purification plants to prove the treatment is removing the dissolved salts and metals that would otherwise go into the boiler and scale-up the heat transferring metal surfaces.

Conductivity meters are also used to measure the TDS build-up inside boilers and to automatically open and close a control valve to blow down the boiler contents and lower the TDS. The probe senses the contamination increasing as water is boiled away into steam. Once the conductivity is above a set limit the automated blow down valve opens and discharges the high TDS water. The probe also monitors the falling TDS levels in the boiler and shuts the blow down valve when the lower set point is reached. Click to learn more about how to measure conductivity of water.

References: Process Control Operative Certificate in Chemical Plant Skills, Holmesglen Collage of TAFE.
Aquarius Technical Bulletin #2, Aquarius Technologies P/L

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .) Be sure to to stay on top!

Saturday, July 8, 2017

PlcProfessor RSLogix 5000

PLCProfessor RSLogix 5000 Training Seminar

The PLC Professor will make you well prepared to take on PACs & RSLogix 5000!

PLCProfessor RSLogix 5000
Starring The PLCProfessor!

Business Industrial Network will be providing their 3 day hands-on RSLogix 5000 PAC training seminar/workshop in St. Louis, MO on September 26-28, 2017. The instructor will be The PLCProfessor (Tim), guiding the class through hands-on exercises using a real PAC (Process Automation Controllers), CompactLogix.

If you have been doing a little research about PLC Training on YouTube, you may have watch Tim (The PLCProfessor) deliver PLC training. Now is your chance to learn about PACs from him, first hand, in person, with hands on real equipment!

BIN95, with over a 2 decade reputation for delivering "The Best for Less", did not cut any corners here either. Every attendee will also receive the following at no additional cost!
  • A free copy of the RSLogix 5000 programming lab project manual ($150 value)
  • An extra information CD
  • Koldwater's PAC computer based certificate course CD ($199 value)
  • And our Structured Text Course CD! ($99 value)
Undeniably, The Best for Less!

Register soon, as there is no doubt this RSLogix 5000 Training Seminar will fill quickly. For detail and to register, see https://bin95.com/RSLogix-5000-training.htm

Don (Follow me on Twitter @IndTraining to keep up with the latest.) Be sure to too for more valuable resources!

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

HVAC Training | VFD Basics

Variable Frequency Drive Essential

(VFD Course introduction video)

This VFD drive training video is a preview of the VDF basics, from the essentials online course at http://bin95.com/vfd-basics-training-online.htm

Variable Frequency
Drive Essential, is a VFD training online certificate course
where you learn how VFD motor control works and other essentials. The online course is designed to familiarize students from beginner or expert with the essential VFD types, features, functions and benefits of them. Be it a VFD pump, motor inverter or other AC motor speed control.

VFD Basics Video

Welcome to Business Industrial Network (BIN95.com)
This training this module will cover variable frequency drive essentials. It is designed to provide product knowledge for all levels. At the conclusion of this module you can register to receive your certificate of completion. Be sure to take advantage of obtaining this documentation serve as proof that you completed the online course.

Now let's get started! PID control is a very popular application for industrial processes the letters stand for Proportional Integral and Derivative. The three calculations that comprise that is sometimes called a Loop. It incorporates an algorithm or formula. It makes calculations of the process and provides feedback to the controller that allows the desired output. An entire session could be developed to cover this topic in detail. A simple explanation however might be to examine a cruise control system on an automobile. A driver sets a desired speed and the controller takes into account varying conditions such as wind conditions and inclines. As the controller senses the varying conditions calculations are being made to ensure the desired speed is maintained.

Here is the block diagram representing the process. Note that each element has its own formula. It looks complicated but the operator merely needs input a few values and the controller then takes over the process. We'll examine this concept in more detail later in this module. No doubt the single biggest market for VFDs are into the HVAC industry. You will hear this acronym a lot when discussing drives. It stands for heating ventilation and air conditioning. Many reports site that 15% of the world's energy consumption is from motors used in HVAC application! That's right ceilings of every commercial and industrial building are a multitude of motors that provide heating and ventilation for areas inside the building. These are fans, air-conditioning units and exhaust systems. During low occupancy can adjust the speed motors are running thereby saving money on electric consumption by as much as 3 see how this is accomplished a little later on in our discussion.

Variable frequency drives are set up by using the keypad on the drive. This key pad is also used to run drive. Some drives automatically going to the run mode. It can be easily changed to the monitor mode by toggling the membrane mode switch again pressing the mode switch. It is important to note in programming manufacturers. In this instance, the Schneider Altivar 212 uses the "symbol ""tHr"" for inputting the thermal" overload value. Most drives can be set up very easily for routine applications by inputting information from the motor nameplate. Namely motor current nominal voltage and desired overload current level the same as the full load current of motor. Many manufacturers offer an alternative LCD keypad with English text that spells out the function rather than provide a symbol. In those cases, interchanged with a standard supplied keypad or as a remote mounted kit. Coming up we'll talk about the other VFD functions available from most drive manufacturers.

In the definition VFDs varied the speed of an AC motor. Well then at full speed the desired speed? This practice would be equivalent to driving a car with the accelerator pressed to the floor applying a brake with your left foot to meet the desired speed limit. And that sounds a little bit far-fetched. But variable frequency drive allows for energy efficiency by only utilizing the exact amount of power operate at a speed that load requires. In addition, the amount of mechanical stress the equipment are minimized. Lastly some applications as we will see such as conveyors smooth operation and changes in speeds offered by a VFD. A typical sewage treatment plant utilizing these equipment applications. This equipment will run an optimized electric power while eliminating mechanical stress and saving money on cost and maintenance. A popular application for pumps and compressors is a duplex design. In pump applications and alternator is used with either a pressure transducer or a float switch. In these applications starts when the pressure is required. As the initial pump comes up to full speed more pressure is required pump starts. Once the system is satisfied ...

Drive manufacturers have the ability to accept feedback signals PID loop refers to the cycle of control. Open loop feedback going directly to the drive. A closed loop system however accurate control of the drive. In closed-loop applications and a speed reference are programed. If the actual
speed varies from the setpoint, referred to as an "off the set point", offset for short. Let's recap that happened ...

The marketplace is jam-packed with manufacturers variable frequency drives. This slide will feature some of them. Eaton electrical has wide variety of drives from different applications. One popular segment of the line is their SVX 9 general purpose and SPX 9 high-performance models. Much of this offering are Bakken drives re-branded for Eaton. Franklin electric out of Portland Oregon's their p- series type for high performance. And PowerFlex 755 for the harmonic mitigating drives. Siemens labels their drives Micro Master SiMatic and SiMotion. They cover a wide variety of applications including HVAC. Some manufacturers will offer low end VFDs as part of their line. These are labeled as micro and mini. they are also sold in board level designs. Micro is the smallest features. Mini offering a few more features such as a display readout. Popular among OEM's are board level versions of these drives. OEM's mounted in their equipment...

Let's take some time to go over the standards that apply the variable frequency drives. NEMA Electrical Manufacturers Association a standard title NEMA ICS 618 This applies the general purpose adjustable frequency drives that include power conversion AC motor or motors. This also applies to systems connected to live voltages of the 1 kV AC 5 frequency up to 6 Commission has issued electromagnetic capability adjustable speed electrical power drive systems part 3 requirements and specific test methods. The CE mark has become ...

Now why do engineer is specified bypass on drives?  he primary reason is to keep machines critical nature from the 197 early stages of development. There are many failures with the circuit boards and SCRs. Customers were anxious to obtain energy savings but the high failure rates caused  manufacturers to offer bypass packages as a backup. Bypass was considered    low-cost method to keep the motor running in case of a VFD going down. Today's VFD failure rates are much lower than bypass contactors. Therefore, the costs appropriated for bypass components in some cases channeling toward a spare drive. This is especially important is a backup for several drives inside a plant. Redundant VFDs critical applications. As seen here they work on the principle that if one VFD fails maintained by a second VFD automatically takes over. Redundant VFDs have been around for years only recently has this concept become cost effective. As the VFD...

Variable frequency drives their compact size into existing motor control centers. Replacing the standard starter or multi speed starter This represents a considerable energy savings opportunity for customers. However, caution needs to be exercised since the VFDs generate considerable more heat than a conventional motor starter. Proper ventilation needs to be addressed. Also...

Let's go through the selection factors that apply the variable frequency drives. You need to know the horsepower voltage and if the voltage is single-phase or three- phase. Next you need to know whether it's constant torque or variable torque. Next you will need to now of a disconnect is required disconnect is required breaker for a switch and the current rating or fuse clip rating that applies. Next you need to find out if an output contactor is required. If an input line reactor is required or a load reactor. If dynamic braking is required. And then bypass is required or three contactors required. What are the pilot lights and switches required the bypass operation? Is redundancy required to now the NEMA or IP rating of the enclosure. And lastly if any special boards are needed interfacing with network system or with an encoder.

To take the full Online VFD Essentials Certificate
Course, see http://bin95.com/vfd-basics-training-online.htm

 Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .)Be sure to to stay on top!

Monday, April 17, 2017

The True Cost of Downtime in Manufacturing and Big Data

True Cost of Downtime 🔗 #Manufacturing and #BigData

  • No doubt you've explored TPM, Lean Manufacturing, OEE, maybe even ROCE.
  • But does your EAM and CMMS incorporate TDC (True Downtime Cost®)??
  • Does your big data analytics incorporate the true cost of downtime?

See and Download at http://bin95.com/ebooks/equipment_down_time_costs.htm

If not, you've missed the low hanging fruit in this alphabet soup. (yuk.. fruit and soup) Download "The True Cost of Downtime" ebook today and learn about the missing link in  Lean Manufacturing. Yes, there will be a section on #OEE, even #TEEP. But that is just to give you some context in this Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology known as TDC (© 1995-2017 by BIN95.com).

Learn how you can make better informed decisions using TDC and pick the greater savings quicker.
Also, as you read, you may realize TDC is also the missing link in 🔗 big data analytics. This book should be a part of all lean manufacturing training, especially while comparing activity based costing vs traditional costing.

Related: ROIC, Gemba, theory of constraints, Smart Factory, Connected Enterprise, IIoT, ERP, CMMS

"True Downtime Cost®" is a registered trademark of Business Industrial Network (https://BIN95.com)

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .)Be sure to to stay on top!

Sunday, March 12, 2017


How fluids flow in pipes.

This article explains what happens to fluids flowing through pipes.

How fluids flow in pipes: This article explains what happens to fluids flowing through pipes. A fluid is either a liquid or a gas. In industry they are piped from storage to the point of use. Correct design and installation of the piping system minimizes pressure loss and improves the behavior of equipment and processes.


A fluid flowing through a pipe contacts the pipe wall. The pipe wall has surface roughness. The amount of roughness affects the drag on the fluid. Roughness is measured by the height of the projections sticking up from the pipe wall.
In the valleys between projections the fluid moves slowly. Above the projections it moves faster. The drag between layers tears, or shears, them apart and each layer moves at a different speed. The shear rate decreases as the distance from the wall increases. The velocity at the wall is zero and fastest at the center. This means the central core of the fluid exits the pipe first.


Because of friction caused by the pipe wall the fluid moves slower near the wall. This slow moving fluid is known as the laminar sub-layer. In this layer the fluid slides over itself. The thickness of the sub layer can vary from tenths of a millimeter to several millimeters depending on the speed of the flow, the height of the wall projections and the fluid’s physical properties. The sub-layer only develops in turbulent (fast) flows. At slow flows the sub-layer blends in with the lamina (slow) flow in the pipe. Figure 1 shows the effect on flow velocity of the surface of a pipe wall.

Away from the pipe wall the flow is turbulent. In this area there are eddies and vortices moving randomly about the pipe from side to side and top to bottom. It is a region where confused lumps of fluid ‘tattle’ about their way along the pipe. Between the laminar and turbulent regions is a short transition zone as the flow changes to turbulent.


Liquids do not all behave the same. Blood has different flow characteristics than water. Paint flows differently to gasoline petrol. Liquids are categorized by their behaviors when undergoing shear. Those liquids that have a constant shear rate with change of velocity (like water) are called Newtonian (Newton first developed the mathematical explanation for the phenomenon). Those with shear rates that vary with changing velocity (like paint and blood) are Non-Newtonian. The shear rate is a measure of a fluid’s viscosity or slipperiness.

The density of a fluid affects its viscosity. Fluids with more mass per unit volume are heavier and require more energy to move them and shear less easily. A temperature rise decreases the viscosity and density of liquids.

The more viscous, or less slippery, a fluid the harder it is to get shearing between layers. The high viscosity prevents rapid velocity changes occurring between layers. The sub layer in viscous fluids is thicker than in low viscosity fluids.


At low speeds the whole flow across a pipe is laminar and the fluid slides over itself. As the speed becomes faster eddies start to form and cross the fluid layers. A transition from laminar to turbulent flow develops. At still higher velocities the flow in the core of the pipe becomes turbulent with swirling eddies throughout. Figure 2 shows where the various flow regions occur at a tank nozzle.

The laminar sub layer is always present against the pipe wall. But as the velocity rises the energetic swirling eddies begin to impact more deeply and the sub layer begins to thin. At still higher velocities the sub layer thins further and the taller roughness peaks stick into the turbulent region. Where the sub layer covers the roughness projections the wall is considered ‘smooth’. When the wall roughness pokes out of the sub layer the wall is considered ‘rough’. This means the same wall can be both smooth and rough depending on the fluid’s velocity.

Experiments have proven the pressure loss along a pipe with laminar flow is proportional to the velocity (p ∝ V) where as for turbulent flow the pressure loss is proportional to the square of the velocity (p ∝ V2). A slower flow permits a thicker sub layer and creates a ‘smooth’ pipe wall. This minimizes the losses along the pipe. There is a very much greater loss of pressure in turbulent flow.
The pipe system designer has to strike a practical balance between increasing the pipe diameter to reduce energy loss and keeping the diameter small to lower installation costs.


Elbows, bends, reducers, branch tees and flanges all cause individual minor pressure losses. When a fluid is forced to change direction, or go around a disruption, eddies are produced. These new twisting eddies interfere with the flow pattern and produce additional pressure losses.

The greatest pressure losses occur at sudden diameter and direction changes. Most of the loss occurs in the downstream eddy wake. When designing a pipe run gradually blend-in changes to the flow pattern.


Unlike a liquid a gas is compressible and can be squashed. When a gas is compressed the density increases - as the pressure is released the density decreases. Gas flowing into a pipe starts at a pressure, temperature and associated density. The frictional losses along the pipe cause a pressure loss. If the gas is now at a lower pressure it must be at a correspondingly lesser density. (It is less squashed together than it was at the start.) This means the density of a flowing gas varies along the length of the pipe. The effect is greater at higher velocities.

For a mass of gas to enter a pipe an equal mass must leave the pipe. We know the density is continually thinning as the pressure drops along the pipe. One kilogram of less dense gas requires more space (volume) than the same weight of a more compressed gas. To get one kilogram of expanding gas, which is taking up more volume, out from the end of the pipe it must go faster than when it entered the pipe. Gas flowing through a pipe expands as the pressure falls and speeds up the further it travels along the pipe.

Expanding gas cools. This principle is used in refrigerators and air conditioners. A gas flowing in a pipe is expanding as the density falls. This is why compressed air lines are cool to touch and why water droplets collect in pneumatic valve actuators. The temperature has fallen low enough to condense the water vapor. (Download this article as printable Flow through pipes pdf)

Was the above "How Fluid Flows in Pipes" whitepaper too dry for you? If so, download the highly interactive Fluid Power Training Certificate Course to learn more!

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .) Be sure to to stay on top!

Thursday, February 9, 2017

Industry Convergence Examples

Introduction via Industrial Convergence Examples

Industrial Convergence is very similar to convergent evolution as it most commonly referred to in evolutionary biology.
Definition: Biological Convergence Evolution:
The process of organisms not closely related, independently evolving with similar traits as a result of having similar environments.
Relative to nature and the creation of earth, industrial technology convergence is at it's beginning stages. So historically industrial technology convergence has been more of a convergence of closely related technologies, rather than not closely related. Demonstrated below in the industrial convergence example section. But as highlighted in "New" industrial convergence section, process and manufacturing is excitingly on the brink of becoming the exact definition of "Convergence Evolution"!

Industrial Convergence Examples:

Engineers have witness converge engineering in the industrial sector for decades. First it was the convergence of the electrical industry with the digital electronics industry resulting in the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and on to DCS systems. Then we witness the industrial convergence of the PLC to the computer IT and programming industry. At this time in history communicating with computers quickly and standardizing protocols for data transfer between so many devices, became essential and OPC was developed. Shortly after, the PAC (Process Automation Controller) evolved.

Now days those in the industry question is it a PLC or a PAC, is it HMI or SCADA, is it a micro-controller or a full blown dual processor computer, etc? For those new to the industry, it can be simplified by the following. Control relays where replace (converged) with the micro-controller PLC, which is now converging with an industrial computer, the PAC that emulates a PLC. HMI (Human Machine Interface) is a computer software, which later added data collection to become SCADA (also a software). The process and manufacturing industry is an expensive process, so all the above technologies remain, and OPC (OLE for Process Control) is the data translator between all the technologies and the many related devices.

Protocol Convergence:

The process and manufacturing industry is an expensive process, so all the above technologies remain, and OPC (OLE for Process Control) is the data translator between all the technologies and the many related devices. The result of protocol convergence. OPC is now the latest, most modern and powerful communications protocol for the industry. Using OPC, many data transfers can be quickly and effectively facilitated. In addition, many powerful, custom applications can be developed and implemented on an OPC server-based computer connected to DCS and SCADA systems.On the data side of industrial technology like IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things), AKA the "Industry 4.0", OPC is an integral part.

So now that you know a little more about past and current state of industrial technology, let us explore more about the new OPC SCADA course BIN95 offers. This Pi OPC Master training bundle also shows you how to connect two independent OPC servers together easily with included special software. The course covers how to pull/push data to and from PLC SCADA system to host computers in the most safe and reliable way. It starts with comprehensive theory chapters, followed by over 150 question review tests and then ends with hands-on lab and practical application using real industrial grade software consisting of OPC server and OPC client.  Students install the software on their own computer, configure the OPC server and OPC client as if they were in a real plant and then witness actual real-time data communications in front of their eyes on their own computer. Learn more, see http://bin95.com/opc-scada-training.htm

The New Industrial Convergence:

The new industrial convergence is on the cellular and smaller scale between manufacturing, organic material and computer data. While 3D printing used in manufacturing is similar to growing products instead of assembling them, in the future we will literally be growing products. With increasing environmental concerns, product materials (media) will be organic instead of metal or plastic. A lot of the required technology will be a result of research in the medical fields. With manufacturing and medical being two different environments, it is the text book definition of convergence evolution.

An exciting future realization with nano technology will be biological nano-bots that go in to the human body, emitting a gas or biological force-field around it so the body does not reject it or get infected. Likewise in the process and manufacturing industry, permanent nano-bots could repair a circuit when it fails. Biological one could travel down a pipe and do repairs, then decay like other biological do so as not to contaminate the liquids traveling through pipes. For the new industrial convergence, it is not a question of if, it is only a question of when. In our country, industry is concerned with current government lowing educational standards by leaving them in states hand, cutting budgets for research etc. (Basically putting the brakes on technological evolution)  But Chin Up! Cheerio! There is a whole world out there who will Carry On!

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .) Be sure to to stay on top!