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Monday, April 17, 2017

The True Cost of Downtime in Manufacturing and Big Data

True Cost of Downtime 🔗 #Manufacturing and #BigData

  • No doubt you've explored TPM, Lean Manufacturing, OEE, maybe even ROCE.
  • But does your EAM and CMMS incorporate TDC (True Downtime Cost)??
  • Does your big data analytics incorporate the true cost of downtime?

See and Download at

If not, you've missed the low hanging fruit in this alphabet soup. (yuk.. fruit and soup) Download "The True Cost of Downtime" ebook today and learn about the missing link in  Lean Manufacturing. Yes, there will be a section on #OEE, even #TEEP. But that is just to give you some context in this Activity Based Costing (ABC) methodology known as TDC (© 1995-2017 by

Learn how you can make better informed decisions using TDC and pick the greater savings quicker.
Also, as you read, you may realize TDC is also the missing link in 🔗 big data analytics. This book should be a part of all lean manufacturing training, especially while comparing activity based costing vs traditional costing.

Related: ROIC, Gemba, theory of constraints

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .)Be sure to to stay on top!

Sunday, March 12, 2017


How fluids flow in pipes.

This article explains what happens to fluids flowing through pipes.

How fluids flow in pipes: This article explains what happens to fluids flowing through pipes. A fluid is either a liquid or a gas. In industry they are piped from storage to the point of use. Correct design and installation of the piping system minimizes pressure loss and improves the behavior of equipment and processes.


A fluid flowing through a pipe contacts the pipe wall. The pipe wall has surface roughness. The amount of roughness affects the drag on the fluid. Roughness is measured by the height of the projections sticking up from the pipe wall.
In the valleys between projections the fluid moves slowly. Above the projections it moves faster. The drag between layers tears, or shears, them apart and each layer moves at a different speed. The shear rate decreases as the distance from the wall increases. The velocity at the wall is zero and fastest at the center. This means the central core of the fluid exits the pipe first.


Because of friction caused by the pipe wall the fluid moves slower near the wall. This slow moving fluid is known as the laminar sub-layer. In this layer the fluid slides over itself. The thickness of the sub layer can vary from tenths of a millimeter to several millimeters depending on the speed of the flow, the height of the wall projections and the fluid’s physical properties. The sub-layer only develops in turbulent (fast) flows. At slow flows the sub-layer blends in with the lamina (slow) flow in the pipe. Figure 1 shows the effect on flow velocity of the surface of a pipe wall.

Away from the pipe wall the flow is turbulent. In this area there are eddies and vortices moving randomly about the pipe from side to side and top to bottom. It is a region where confused lumps of fluid ‘tattle’ about their way along the pipe. Between the laminar and turbulent regions is a short transition zone as the flow changes to turbulent.


Liquids do not all behave the same. Blood has different flow characteristics than water. Paint flows differently to gasoline petrol. Liquids are categorized by their behaviors when undergoing shear. Those liquids that have a constant shear rate with change of velocity (like water) are called Newtonian (Newton first developed the mathematical explanation for the phenomenon). Those with shear rates that vary with changing velocity (like paint and blood) are Non-Newtonian. The shear rate is a measure of a fluid’s viscosity or slipperiness.

The density of a fluid affects its viscosity. Fluids with more mass per unit volume are heavier and require more energy to move them and shear less easily. A temperature rise decreases the viscosity and density of liquids.

The more viscous, or less slippery, a fluid the harder it is to get shearing between layers. The high viscosity prevents rapid velocity changes occurring between layers. The sub layer in viscous fluids is thicker than in low viscosity fluids.


At low speeds the whole flow across a pipe is laminar and the fluid slides over itself. As the speed becomes faster eddies start to form and cross the fluid layers. A transition from laminar to turbulent flow develops. At still higher velocities the flow in the core of the pipe becomes turbulent with swirling eddies throughout. Figure 2 shows where the various flow regions occur at a tank nozzle.

The laminar sub layer is always present against the pipe wall. But as the velocity rises the energetic swirling eddies begin to impact more deeply and the sub layer begins to thin. At still higher velocities the sub layer thins further and the taller roughness peaks stick into the turbulent region. Where the sub layer covers the roughness projections the wall is considered ‘smooth’. When the wall roughness pokes out of the sub layer the wall is considered ‘rough’. This means the same wall can be both smooth and rough depending on the fluid’s velocity.

Experiments have proven the pressure loss along a pipe with laminar flow is proportional to the velocity (p ∝ V) where as for turbulent flow the pressure loss is proportional to the square of the velocity (p ∝ V2). A slower flow permits a thicker sub layer and creates a ‘smooth’ pipe wall. This minimizes the losses along the pipe. There is a very much greater loss of pressure in turbulent flow.
The pipe system designer has to strike a practical balance between increasing the pipe diameter to reduce energy loss and keeping the diameter small to lower installation costs.


Elbows, bends, reducers, branch tees and flanges all cause individual minor pressure losses. When a fluid is forced to change direction, or go around a disruption, eddies are produced. These new twisting eddies interfere with the flow pattern and produce additional pressure losses.

The greatest pressure losses occur at sudden diameter and direction changes. Most of the loss occurs in the downstream eddy wake. When designing a pipe run gradually blend-in changes to the flow pattern.


Unlike a liquid a gas is compressible and can be squashed. When a gas is compressed the density increases - as the pressure is released the density decreases. Gas flowing into a pipe starts at a pressure, temperature and associated density. The frictional losses along the pipe cause a pressure loss. If the gas is now at a lower pressure it must be at a correspondingly lesser density. (It is less squashed together than it was at the start.) This means the density of a flowing gas varies along the length of the pipe. The effect is greater at higher velocities.

For a mass of gas to enter a pipe an equal mass must leave the pipe. We know the density is continually thinning as the pressure drops along the pipe. One kilogram of less dense gas requires more space (volume) than the same weight of a more compressed gas. To get one kilogram of expanding gas, which is taking up more volume, out from the end of the pipe it must go faster than when it entered the pipe. Gas flowing through a pipe expands as the pressure falls and speeds up the further it travels along the pipe.

Expanding gas cools. This principle is used in refrigerators and air conditioners. A gas flowing in a pipe is expanding as the density falls. This is why compressed air lines are cool to touch and why water droplets collect in pneumatic valve actuators. The temperature has fallen low enough to condense the water vapor. (Download this article as printable Flow through pipes pdf)

Was the above "How Fluid Flows in Pipes" whitepaper too dry for you? If so, download the highly interactive Fluid Power Training Certificate Course to learn more!

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .) Be sure to to stay on top!

Thursday, February 9, 2017

Industry Convergence Examples

Introduction via Industrial Convergence Examples

Industrial Convergence is very similar to convergent evolution as it most commonly referred to in evolutionary biology.
Definition: Biological Convergence Evolution:
The process of organisms not closely related, independently evolving with similar traits as a result of having similar environments.
Relative to nature and the creation of earth, industrial technology convergence is at it's beginning stages. So historically industrial technology convergence has been more of a convergence of closely related technologies, rather than not closely related. Demonstrated below in the industrial convergence example section. But as highlighted in "New" industrial convergence section, process and manufacturing is excitingly on the brink of becoming the exact definition of "Convergence Evolution"!

Industrial Convergence Examples:

Engineers have witness converge engineering in the industrial sector for decades. First it was the convergence of the electrical industry with the digital electronics industry resulting in the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) and on to DCS systems. Then we witness the industrial convergence of the PLC to the computer IT and programming industry. At this time in history communicating with computers quickly and standardizing protocols for data transfer between so many devices, became essential and OPC was developed. Shortly after, the PAC (Process Automation Controller) evolved.

Now days those in the industry question is it a PLC or a PAC, is it HMI or SCADA, is it a micro-controller or a full blown dual processor computer, etc? For those new to the industry, it can be simplified by the following. Control relays where replace (converged) with the micro-controller PLC, which is now converging with an industrial computer, the PAC that emulates a PLC. HMI (Human Machine Interface) is a computer software, which later added data collection to become SCADA (also a software). The process and manufacturing industry is an expensive process, so all the above technologies remain, and OPC (OLE for Process Control) is the data translator between all the technologies and the many related devices.

Protocol Convergence:

The process and manufacturing industry is an expensive process, so all the above technologies remain, and OPC (OLE for Process Control) is the data translator between all the technologies and the many related devices. The result of protocol convergence. OPC is now the latest, most modern and powerful communications protocol for the industry. Using OPC, many data transfers can be quickly and effectively facilitated. In addition, many powerful, custom applications can be developed and implemented on an OPC server-based computer connected to DCS and SCADA systems.On the data side of industrial technology like IIoT (Industrial Internet of Things), AKA the "Industry 4.0", OPC is an integral part.

So now that you know a little more about past and current state of industrial technology, let us explore more about the new OPC SCADA course BIN95 offers. This Pi OPC Master training bundle also shows you how to connect two independent OPC servers together easily with included special software. The course covers how to pull/push data to and from PLC SCADA system to host computers in the most safe and reliable way. It starts with comprehensive theory chapters, followed by over 150 question review tests and then ends with hands-on lab and practical application using real industrial grade software consisting of OPC server and OPC client.  Students install the software on their own computer, configure the OPC server and OPC client as if they were in a real plant and then witness actual real-time data communications in front of their eyes on their own computer. Learn more, see

The New Industrial Convergence:

The new industrial convergence is on the cellular and smaller scale between manufacturing, organic material and computer data. While 3D printing used in manufacturing is similar to growing products instead of assembling them, in the future we will literally be growing products. With increasing environmental concerns, product materials (media) will be organic instead of metal or plastic. A lot of the required technology will be a result of research in the medical fields. With manufacturing and medical being two different environments, it is the text book definition of convergence evolution.

An exciting future realization with nano technology will be biological nano-bots that go in to the human body, emitting a gas or biological force-field around it so the body does not reject it or get infected. Likewise in the process and manufacturing industry, permanent nano-bots could repair a circuit when it fails. Biological one could travel down a pipe and do repairs, then decay like other biological do so as not to contaminate the liquids traveling through pipes. For the new industrial convergence, it is not a question of if, it is only a question of when. In our country, industry is concerned with current government lowing educational standards by leaving them in states hand, cutting budgets for research etc. (Basically putting the brakes on technological evolution)  But Chin Up! Cheerio! There is a whole world out there who will Carry On!

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .) Be sure to to stay on top!

Friday, December 30, 2016

Best New Year 2017

Wishing everyone the best of luck with the 2017 New Year

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .) Be sure to to stay on top!

Monday, December 26, 2016

Motor Control Courses Online

Motor Control Courses Online
Basic motor control training courses online...
For these two online courses, best to start coincidentally with the Motor Starters Online certificate course. The Motor Starters online electrical certificate course covers magnetic contactors, motor starter wiring diagram, overload definition, MMP and types of starters. Also explains basics of electrical NEMA vs IEC standards.

Then follow the motor starters course with the Motor Control Centers online course ...
The Online Motor Control Center (MCC) certificate course covers related wiring diagrams and classes, buckets and more. Even introduces one to the different MCC networking options. This online course also goes over most of the major Motor Control Center manufacture's models specifications, both past and present. A sample of MCC models covered are from the Westinghouse - 11-300 back in 1935 to Allen Bradley's current Centerline 2500 IEC MCC.

Both online motor control courses are the best online electrical training deals you can get as they never expire and give you 24/7 access world wide. A great to supplement JATC apprenticeship training before hands on contactor wiring diagram start stop circuits.

Note: It is highly recommended that one first take the full Motor Controls Training certificate course (download or CD) and use the two online courses above to supplement the full motor controls training course. 
For apprenticeship programs, high schools and colleges, there are amazingly cost effective, unlimited user site license options as a one time purchase, no annual fees. For all three electrical training certificate courses.

Don (Follow me on Industrial Skills Training Blog and on Twitter @IndTraining .) Be sure to to stay on top!